OrientDB Manual


OrientDB doesn't split Documents between different classes (as many OR-Mapping tools do). Each Document can reside in one or clusters associated with its specific class. When you execute a query against a class that has sub-classes, OrientDB will search into the clusters of the target class and all its sub-classes.

Declare in schema

OrientDB needs to know the the class inheritance relationship. Note that this is an abstract concept that applies to both POJOs and Documents.


OClass account = database.getMetadata().getSchema().createClass("Account");
OClass company = database.getMetadata().getSchema().createClass("Company").setSuperClass(account);

Polymorphic Queries

By default all queries are polymorphic. Using the example above with this SQL query:

SELECT FROM account WHERE name.toUpperCase() = 'Google'

Will return all the instances of the Account and the Company classes that have the property name equal to "Google".

How it works

Consider this example. We have 3 classes, with the cluster-id between parentheses:

Account(10) <|--- Company (13) <|--- OrientTechnologiesGroup (27)

OrientDB, by default, creates a separate cluster for each class.

This cluster is indicated by the "defaultClusterId" property in the OClass class and indicates the cluster used by default when not specified. However the OClass has a property "clusterIds" (as int[]) that contains all the clusters able to contain the records of that class.

By default "clusterIds" and "defaultClusterId" are the same.

When you execute a query against a class, OrientDB limits the result sets to only the records of the clusters contained in the "clusterIds" property.

In this way when you execute this:

SELECT FROM Account WHERE name.toUpperCase() = 'GOOGLE'

Will return all the records with the name property set to 'GOOGLE' from all three classes because the base class, Account, was specified. For the class "Account" OrientDB searches inside the clusters 10, 13 and, 27 (following the inheritance specified in the schema).